Asia in the Modern World: Images to Flip Over

A painting with a man and a woman standing at the pier with a sail boat in the background, and the man is holding a parasol.

“Eight Views of Yokohama: Sails Returning to the Landing Pier” by Yoshitora, 1861, from Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. (Public domain image.)

OCW has just published an updated version of 21G.027 Asia in the Modern World: Images and Representations. It is an unusual course site, with a unique history, and a remarkable instructor, who has learned new things about teaching even after many years in the classroom.

The course looks at history primarily through images, rather than texts, with a special emphasis on Japan. The instructor is Professor Shigeru Miyagawa, Professor of Linguistics and Kochi-Majiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture. He also holds a joint project professorship at the University of Tokyo, where he is Director of Online Education.

Professor Miyagawa has devoted much energy in his career to creating a large collection of images, assembled from museums from all over the world, on the Visualizing Cultures website. What’s even more impressive, the images are published under a Creative Commons license, so that people can download them and use them in their own teaching and projects.

Beginning with OCW

Professor Miyagawa describes the course and its history in his video Instructor Insights on his This Course at MIT page.  As a member of OCW’s Faculty Advisory Committee from its inception and as Chair of the Committee from 2010 to 2013, he has long been a leading advocate of open sharing, and in another of his videos, he openly shares the story of how OCW was conceived.

Photo (video screengrab) of Professor Miyagawa speaking while seated at a desk.

In a series of short videos, Professor Miyagawa talks about the creation of OCW and his many insights into teaching.

Weaving Online Resources into a Unique Course

The 21G.027 site is a very unusual one for OCW in that it is really a kind of hub. Its Study Materials page points to pieces of content for each topic on three different websites: Visualizing Japan (1850s-1930s): Westernization, Protest, Modernity (a MOOC Professor Miyagawa helped create on the edX platform), Visualizing Cultures, and Visualizing Postwar Tokyo (another MOOC on edX, which Professor Miyagawa was indirectly involved with as Director of Online Education at the University of Tokyo).

If sending learners to different places to get study materials seems peculiar for OCW, in this case it shouldn’t, because that’s how Professor Miyagawa teaches 21G.027 on the MIT campus.

Flipping over a Flipped Class

When he had prepared materials for the VJx MOOC, he had his students check out the videos before coming to class, just to see what their reaction was. The results were a revelation:

And what I realized right away was that students would come into class, and they would have a lot of knowledge, which was not the case before…I had a whole set of PowerPoints which I had created from years of teaching. I did not show a single PowerPoint. For 70 minutes I just asked them questions, just to see if I can find something that they didn’t know. They knew the whole thing. And I said, gee, this is different.

And without realizing it–I didn’t even know what a flipped class was–I just did a flipped class.

Making All the Difference by Working in Teams

Another epiphany he has had involves the importance of student teamwork. All the students at MIT, he notes, “are academically gifted, and they’re highly motivated.” But a couple of students in each class “stand out after they graduate and go on and do big things.” So, he wondered, what’s different about these students? And the distinguishing feature was that they

…have learned to work with others. That’s it…They have learned to work not only with people they share interests, but also with people that they don’t necessarily share interests. That’s the trick.

It’s easy to work with people who are like you. It’s harder to work with people who are not like you. But when you learn to be able to work across the spectrum of people, then you can basically tap their gifts. That’s what entrepreneurship is actually.

As a result, Professor Miyagawa now puts special focus on developing students’ interpersonal skills.

New Chemistry from OCW

Woman in t-shirt standing in front of classroom chalkboard, holding up a water bottle.

Professor Catherine Drennan, wearing one of her many chemistry t-shirts, lectures in 5.111 on Acid-Base Equilibrium, posing the question: Is MIT Water Safe to Drink?

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Do you love chemistry? Doesn’t matter!

OCW has just published a new version of 5.111SC Principles of Chemical Science. Designed for students who don’t have a strong background in chemistry or may not have taken any chemistry before, Principles of Chemical Science fulfills the introductory chemistry requirement that all MIT students must meet in order to graduate. 

Advancing Step by Step

The OCW site is another of OCW’s Scholar courses structured to help independent learners gain mastery of foundational subjects. Accordingly, the course site is supersaturated with content. There are full video lectures, lecture notes, problem sets and solutions, and exams and solutions, plus a set of clicker questions posed to students during the lectures to keep them actively engaged with the content. The site also has links to Behind the Scenes at MIT, a collection of short videos that feature current and former MIT researchers explaining how a particular chemistry topic is essential to their research and to an inspiring real-world application.

The course is structured in linear fashion, progressing through five learning units: The Atom, Chemical Bonding and Structure, Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium, Transition Metals and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, and Chemical Kinetics.

The course materials are also collected in one handy place, the Resource Index, where they are organized by content type (video lectures, notes, problem sets, etc.), so you can quickly find specific things you might be looking for.

Engaging Students in Many Ways

The instructor of the course is Professor Catherine Drennan, who runs the Drennan Research and Education Lab under the auspices of MIT and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Professor Drennan has special sympathy for students who might be lacking in an abundance of enthusiasm for chemistry, because she was once one of them.

As an incoming student at Vassar College, she was interested in studying drama and biology. When told she would have to take chemistry, she groaned, “Please don’t make me take chemistry. I took it in high school. I can tell you it has absolutely nothing to do with biology. It’s deadly, dull. Don’t make me!”

But thanks to an inspiring teacher, she fell in love with chemistry in her first semester. She tells the whole story of her conversion to chemistry and her love of teaching in her Instructor Insights videos on her This Course at MIT page.

Naturally, she wants to kindle a passion for her favorite subject in her MIT students. She tells them, “I’m going to try to help you understand why chemistry is so amazing and how it can affect all sorts of different disciplines . .  . I’m going to teach you really all the basics that you need to know. If you can get those, you can go on and do all sorts of things with that chemistry.”

Tapping her experience on the stage, Professor Drennan does not simply give lectures. Rather, she creates dynamic, interactive classroom experiences that include demonstrations, clicker question competitions, rewards for correct student explanations, and lots of humor, even to the point of embarrassing herself.

But there is a method to her zaniness.

“It really helps people remember when you do something a little bit different,” she observes wryly.

Building Teams to Foster a Sense of Belonging

In her Instructor Insights, she reflects on the challenges of teaching a large class with 350 students. Success very much depends on the strength and dedication of her TAs, who are first-year graduate students, and she fosters a sense of group identity among them, so they support one other as a team.

She employs a similar approach in getting students to see their cohorts in recitation sections as teams by having them compete as a group for t-shirts, chemistry rulers, and other gag prizes in class competitions.

For Professor Drennan, teaching chemistry is much more than showing up to class and holding forth. It’s creating a mixture with high reactivity.

Gaining Street Smarts in 1.252J Urban Transportation Planning

A photo of a mural depicting a group of people standing in front of a bulldozer. The bulldozer reads "Federal Inner Belt I-95.

“Beat the Belt” is a 1980s mural on Memorial Drive in Cambridge, MA, commemorating the success of citizen resistance to the Inner Belt Highway that threatened to run through Cambridge. (Courtesy of Chris Ball on Flickr. CC-BY.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Try to remember: When was the last time an instructor sent you out to watch the traffic go by?

Not recently?

For students taking Frederick Salvucci’s 1.252J Urban Transportation Planning, whose site has just appeared on OCW, it was just the other day.

For the first of four main assignments in the course, Salvucci sends students out in groups to four different intersections and has them count what goes by. The point is “to get students used to thinking about quantities: How many bicycles? How many people in buses? How many people in cars? How many trucks? How many cabs are going down the street? What problems do you observe at that intersection?” Salvucci explains his thinking in his Instructor Insights on the site’s This Course at MIT page.

Knowledge at First Hand

For the students, Boston and Cambridge are a kind of lab, and if there’s anyone who knows this lab, and its highways, byways, and flyways, it’s Salvucci. Growing up in Boston, he served two stints as Secretary of Transportation for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, oversaw the extension of the T’s Red and Orange lines, and orchestrated the financial backing and political support for the “Big Dig,” one of the most complex public works projects in history.

Students go on walking tours, observing roads and neighborhoods, evaluating the impact of urban planning on neighborhoods. They attend public meetings, which “force proponents of transportation projects to explain why they make sense to the public.” The students also investigate what might have been but never came to pass—projects like the “Inner Belt Highway” that were proposed and boosted but ultimately dropped because of community opposition.

Combining experiential learning with the study of research in transportation planning and projects, students write reports and give presentations on their findings.

Boston’s transportation problems, from its half-mad drivers and winding roads to its snowmaggedons and parking torments, are the stuff of legend. Why not join these heroic students and their sage guide in 1.252J, and start learning how to make everything flow more smoothly. Please!

Peer Review: Learning How to Give and Take

Photo of a traffic sign for "two way traffic" with two arrows, one pointing up and one pointing down. By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Peer review! Hardly are those words out than a writing instructor’s heart starts to stir—but with joy or trepidation?

Peer review! That activity in which students review each other’s work and give each other feedback. It’s an essential writing skill, after all, being able to assess a piece of writing critically and offer suggestions for making it more effective without sending the author into a tailspin of despair.

It’s what every good editor does.

Writing is an art, like playing a musical instrument, and to learn how to do it well, you have to practice, so students in writing courses have to write a lot if they are going to improve. But even the most conscientious writing instructor can’t analyze everything the students in a class produce, and it’s often helpful to get more than one perspective on a piece of writing, so peer review offers an attractive solution on more than one front. It can also allow an instructor the breathing space to focus on higher-level things, like getting the students to think like writers.

Not Sweating the Small Stuff

Running a peer-review workshop is not easy, as anyone who’s tried it knows. Great advice from a veteran of many workshops is offered by Jared David Berezin, whose 21W.035 Science Writing and New Media: Communicating Science to the Public appeared this month on OCW.

Rather than just throwing the students into the workshop environment, he begins by holding a discussion, where he shares his own experience on the best and worst of workshopping and gets students’ thinking “about the value of peer-review in the workplace, and ways to solicit peer feedback in a professional, non-classroom setting.”

In the workshops, he wants students “to focus on the larger, global issues in the drafts, rather than editing sentences.” How come? “For many readers, it’s easier to focus on the little things, because they can be commented on with confidence and fixed quickly. Instead, I’d rather students use the precious time in the classroom to discuss the more difficult and nebulous issues within a text.”

Paraphrase as a Passport to Understanding

Nonetheless, he asks students “to provide evidence for all comments by referring directly to the text. Referencing single moments in the text can allow readers and authors to engage in a concrete discussion of ways to improve the overall draft, rather than speaking in vague abstractions.”

Students are required to take notes on each other’s work and to ask others to paraphrase what they have written. This “allows the author to assess whether the reader’s understanding aligns with the intent and desired meaning.”

Active Experiments

Aside from these and many other practical tips for making peer-review workshops a success, the course site has a gold mine of detailed assignments, in-class exercises, and “communication experiments” designed to foster creativity and versatility (Berezin shares his reflections on these experiments, peer review, and other facets of his teaching in his Instructor Insights). Most experiments, like “reverse-engineering metaphors” and descriptions of a green space from assigned perspectives, involve group work as well as individual writing. In this class, isolation is not an option.

If you are a writing teacher, or an aspiring writer hoping to make your mark, you’ll want to take a look at 21W.035. It has a lot to offer, both to you and to your peers.

The Once and Future City

“A cloudy evening on the bridge between Boston and Cambridge. In 2015, this course focused on the 100th anniversary of MIT’s move across the Charles River, from Boston to Cambridge. (Courtesy of nd-nʎ on Flickr. CC BY-NC-SA.)”

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Walk around a neighborhood in your city or town, and you might notice the different styles of buildings, the width of the streets, the kinds of trees or other plants, the open spaces, the way the wind whistles. Taking it all in, you might feel caught up in the moment. Ah!

But maybe you’re just trapped in the present.

Stretching your time frame is a major focus of 11.016J The Once and Future City, just published on OCW as taught by Professor Anne Whiston Spirn in Spring 2015.

 

Identifying the Pieces

“Cities are the products of the actions of millions of people and countless decisions, public and private,” Professor Spirn notes in one of her three videos that kick off the assignments. “How do all the pieces, styles, and times fit together?”

Early in the class students investigate maps of Boston, discovering how the city has changed over the centuries. “Who has the power to erase roads, to consolidate hundreds of properties?” a second video asks. “Why do some things persist and others disappear?”

A big part of the course is learning how to look, how to find “significant detail.” This process can be awkward for students accustomed to finding a right answer to a given question. The students are “not just taking a text and applying it, or critiquing something that already exists. They are developing visual thinking skills, and they have to make observations using their own eyes and mind. Many are not prepared for this.”

 

Stepping outside the Classroom Box

Professor Spirn helps them see for themselves by taking them on short field trips, where she asks provocative questions to get students thinking. As she explains in “Leading Productive Field Trips,” one of her Instructor Insights,

“The field trips are designed to give the students an introduction to methods of observation before they have to go out and perform field observations on their own at the sites they choose for their projects. We walk around and I show them how to look at things, how to find significant detail. But what is significant? Some students don’t see anything at all . . . Others see so many things that they can’t make sense out of what is significant and what is trivial. The field trip helps both kinds of students.”

 

Seeing Patterns Emerge

This form of teaching is very different from how Professor Spirn originally taught the course, back when she imparted knowledge through class lectures. Several years ago she decided to flip her classroom. Now instead of lecturing, she says

“I put together a series of images—mostly maps and photographs . . . Depending on the current assignment, the images emphasize different phenomena. But they always consist of puzzles . . . I’ll project an image on the screen and say, ‘What pattern do you see here?’ Sometimes nobody sees a pattern, so I say, ‘OK, do you see any anomalies? Does anything stick out or seem odd?’”

From the puzzles emerge patterns, and from the patterns, a hypothesis.

 

Opening the Mind’s Eye through Projects

The course site has extensive descriptions of the assignments, in which students select a site to explore, observe the natural processes at play in it, analyze its changes through time, and see what all of this bodes for the future.

Included on the site are examples of student projects from four different iterations of the course, among them papers on Coolidge Corner, The Bullfinch Triangle, and Boston’s West End.

11.016J turns the present into a portal for time travel. If it sounds fantastic, that’s because it is.

Courses from MIT’s 2017 MacVicar Fellows

Photos of three MIT professors

MIT professors Maria Yang (left), Caspar Hare (center), and Scott Hughes have been named 2017 MacVicar Fellows. (Photos by Bryce Vickmark (Yang), Patrick Gilooly (Hare), and Justin Knight.)

By Sarah Hansen, OCW Educator Project Manager

For the past 25 years, the MacVicar Faculty Fellows Program has honored several MIT professors each year who have made outstanding contributions to undergraduate teaching, educational innovation, and mentoring.

This year’s awardees are Professors Caspar Hare (philosophy), Scott A. Hughes (physics), and Maria Yang (mechanical engineering).

OCW is honored to share courses from two of this year’s Fellows.

Caspar Hare

24.06J/STS.006J Bioethics

Scott A. Hughes

8.962 General Relativity

Through the OCW Educator initiative, we have also collected teaching insights from several current and past MacVicar Fellows.

Arthur Bahr

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English and Beowulf

Wit Busza

Vibrations and Waves Problem Solving

Dennis M. Freeman

6.01SC Introduction to Electrical Engineering and Computer Science I

Lorna Gibson

3.054 Cellular Solids: Structure, Properties and Applications

Steven R. Hall

16.06 Principles of Automatic Control

Anne E. C. McCants

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History

Haynes R. Miller

18.821 Project Laboratory in Mathematics

18.915 Graduate Topology Seminar: Kan Seminar

Hazel Sive

7.013 Introductory Biology (Spring 2013 version)

Insights on teaching Humanities, Arts, and Social Science at MIT

PHoto of several people around a wooden workbench.

History professor Jeff Ravel and students build a working printing press based on early modern European designs, in 21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today. (Photo by Jonathan Sachs / Jonathan Sachs Graphics, Inc.)

One of our favorite things at MIT OpenCourseWare is to shine a spotlight on fascinating subjects and great teachers that might otherwise escape notice. We’ve written before on the strength of MIT’s School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (SHASS), both in their own right and in community with MIT’s more widely recognized STEM and business programs. OCW is pleased to freely share material from nearly 800 courses from across all SHASS disciplines.

Where to begin among all this free learning material? If you’re an educator (or just curious about teaching and learning process), you’re in luck!  OCW Educator project manager Sarah Hansen recently worked with SHASS colleagues to compile a list of OCW highlights, which we republish here. Each of these links goes to the course’s “This Course at MIT” section, where the instructor shares detailed insights about their teaching approach.

Anthropology

21A.445 Slavery and Human Trafficking in the 21st Century (Spring 2015), Mitali Thakor
Mitali Thakor describes how she uses non-traditional examples to broaden students’ understanding of human trafficking, how she thinks about students’ emotional responses to triggering topics, how she navigates teaching as a new instructor, and her thoughts on using writing assignments to encourage students to complete reading assignments.

Comparative Media Studies/Writing

21W.758 Genre Fiction Workshop (Spring 2013), Shariann Lewitt
Shariann Lewitt shares unique aspects of teaching fiction writing at MIT and discusses how she teaches students to challenge texts.

21W.747 Rhetoric (Spring 2015), Steven Strang
Steven Strang describes how he facilitates writing workshops and how he changes the course from year to year.

CMS.590J Computer Games and Simulations for Education and Exploration (Spring 2015), Eric Klopfer
Eric Klopfer describes the form and function of teamwork in this course. He also shares tips for facilitating project-based learning.

CMS.611J Creating Video Games (Fall 2014), Philip Tan, Sara Verrilli, Richard Eberhardt, and Andrew Haydn Grant
The instructors share their pedagogical approaches in 8 videos. Topics include: teaching students how to solve creative problems as teams; sequencing learning experiences; encouraging iteration, fostering diversity of voice in the course; assessing students’ projects; refining the course; advice for other educators; and their reflections on the collaboration between MIT and the Red Cross/Red Crescent Society during the course.  

CMS.608/CMS.864 Game Design (Spring 2014), Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt
Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt discuss how they prepare for the semester and class sessions, how they help students build game-playing experience, their assessment design, and factors, such as student background and feedback from students, that impact how they teach the course.

Global Studies and Languages

21G.101 Chinese I (Regular) (Fall 2014), Haohsiang Liao
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Haohsiang Liao shares how the curriculum in this course helps students develop cultural competence. He also describes the daily grading system in the course, the importance of listening to audio files, reasons to prioritize speaking and listening before reading and writing, how he supports struggling students, how he creates an immersive classroom environment, and how he motivates students to engage in language study. 

21G.107 Chinese I (Streamlined) (Fall 2014), Min-Min Liang
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Min-Min Liang shares her philosophical approach to language teaching, her insights about teaching heritage learners, her use of technology in this streamlined language course, her approach to assessment, and her hopes for incorporating more authentic texts into the curriculum in future iterations of the course.

21G.735 Advanced Topics in Hispanic Literature and Film: The Films of Luis Bunuel (1999-2013), Elizabeth Garrels
This course was taught at MIT seven times between 1999 and 2013. Elizabeth Garrels shares a history of the course, her film selections, and how she facilitated discussions in Spanish with students at different language proficiency levels.

RES.21G-001 The User-Friendly Classroom, A.C. Kemp
A.C. Kemp discusses the importance of focusing on International Teaching Assistants (ITAs), shares how user experience can be applied to ITA training, and ways to use the materials in this video training series.

History

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective (Spring 2012), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares insights about using a survey at the beginning of a course to understand students’ needs and backgrounds, to help students see that different students have different needs, and to encourage students to get into the habit of writing. She also discusses how she frames the humanities as problem solving endeavors and how she infuses the course with current events. Other topics include: teaching communication, the intersection of research and teaching, and adapting the course from year to year.

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today (Spring 2016), Anne McCants, Jeffrey Ravel and Ken Stone
The instructors of this course, in which students built a printing press, discuss using archival experiences to ground readings and allay educators’ skepticism about facilitating a hands-on course in the humanities.

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History (Fall 2014), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares how she engages students in archive-based research, how she infuses the course with multiple voices, and how she helps students develop professional competencies.

Literature

21L.011 The Film Experience (Fall 2013), David Thorburn
David Thorburn shares his pedagogical approach to teaching film in seven videos. Topics include his approach to lecturing, how he views the course as literary in nature, how the course has changed over the 30 years that he has taught it, the role of video lectures, and the themes structuring course.

21L.315 Prizewinners: Nobelistas (Spring 2015), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley shares how she selects Nobelistas to spotlight in the course, how she facilitates discussions, and her approach to teaching novices.

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur (Fall 2013), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes how he sets the stage for the study of Arthurian literature with a key question, how he encourages participation during classroom discussions, and his ideas for alternative assessment strategies in the course.

21L.501 The American Novel: Stranger and Stranger (Spring 2013), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley describes her motivation for developing the course and how she organizes it. She also describes her text selection, the digital tools she uses in the course, workshops, and unique aspects of teaching literature at MIT.

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English (Spring 2014), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes the curricular scope and sequence of the course, his textbook choice, how he assesses student learning, and how he develops rapport with students.

Linguistics and Philosophy

24.191 Ethics in Your Life: Being, Thinking, Doing (or Not?) (Spring 2015), Sally Haslanger, Patricia-Maria Weinmann, Brendan de Kennessy
Patricia-Maria Weinmann and Brendan de Kenessey share the history and design of this course, how they cultivated a classroom culture conducive to honest discussions, and how they experimented with a new discussion format.

Music and Theater Arts

21M.065 Introduction to Musical Composition (Spring 2014), Keeril Makan 
Keeril Makan describes his pedagogical goals in the course, which include helping students develop different ways of listening to music and to their environments and providing students with a hands-on introduction to music. He also shares pedagogical strategies, such as emphasizing student performance, using paper and pencil before employing software to complete projects, and engaging students in composer forums and concerts.

21M.380 Music and Technology: Sound Design (Spring 2016), Florian Hollerweger 
Florian Hollerweger discusses course design, teaching with technology (and without), learning actively in groups, using surveys to get to know students, assessing student learning in creative contexts, and engaging students deeply in the design process.

Political Science

17.445/17.446 International Relations Theory in the Cyber Age (Fall 2015), Nazli Choucri
Nazli Choucri comments on the importance of active participation during seminars and shares how she uses questions to promote engagement.

Science, Technology, and Society

STS.080/11.151 Youth Political Participation (Spring 2016), Jennifer Light
tudents take an active role in this course. They help the instructor, Jennifer Light, write the exam questions, lead presentations, and examine primary sources at the MIT Museum. In addition to instructor insights, visitors to the OCW course will find student perspectives about the pedagogical strategies shaping the learning experiences in this class.

Women and Gender Studies

WGS.151 Gender, Health, and Society (Spring 2016), Brittany Charlton
Brittany Charlton shares teaching techniques she uses to engage students, her insights on teaching content rooted in real-world contexts, and her thoughts on teaching students with a broad range of background experiences. She also discusses students’ final projects.