Courses from MIT’s 2017 MacVicar Fellows

Photos of three MIT professors

MIT professors Maria Yang (left), Caspar Hare (center), and Scott Hughes have been named 2017 MacVicar Fellows. (Photos by Bryce Vickmark (Yang), Patrick Gilooly (Hare), and Justin Knight.)

By Sarah Hansen, OCW Educator Project Manager

For the past 25 years, the MacVicar Faculty Fellows Program has honored several MIT professors each year who have made outstanding contributions to undergraduate teaching, educational innovation, and mentoring.

This year’s awardees are Professors Caspar Hare (philosophy), Scott A. Hughes (physics), and Maria Yang (mechanical engineering).

OCW is honored to share courses from two of this year’s Fellows.

Caspar Hare

24.06J/STS.006J Bioethics

Scott A. Hughes

8.962 General Relativity

Through the OCW Educator initiative, we have also collected teaching insights from several current and past MacVicar Fellows.

Arthur Bahr

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English and Beowulf

Wit Busza

Vibrations and Waves Problem Solving

Dennis M. Freeman

6.01SC Introduction to Electrical Engineering and Computer Science I

Lorna Gibson

3.054 Cellular Solids: Structure, Properties and Applications

Steven R. Hall

16.06 Principles of Automatic Control

Anne E. C. McCants

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History

Haynes R. Miller

18.821 Project Laboratory in Mathematics

18.915 Graduate Topology Seminar: Kan Seminar

Hazel Sive

7.013 Introductory Biology (Spring 2013 version)

Insights on teaching Humanities, Arts, and Social Science at MIT

PHoto of several people around a wooden workbench.

History professor Jeff Ravel and students build a working printing press based on early modern European designs, in 21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today. (Photo by Jonathan Sachs / Jonathan Sachs Graphics, Inc.)

One of our favorite things at MIT OpenCourseWare is to shine a spotlight on fascinating subjects and great teachers that might otherwise escape notice. We’ve written before on the strength of MIT’s School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (SHASS), both in their own right and in community with MIT’s more widely recognized STEM and business programs. OCW is pleased to freely share material from nearly 800 courses from across all SHASS disciplines.

Where to begin among all this free learning material? If you’re an educator (or just curious about teaching and learning process), you’re in luck!  OCW Educator project manager Sarah Hansen recently worked with SHASS colleagues to compile a list of OCW highlights, which we republish here. Each of these links goes to the course’s “This Course at MIT” section, where the instructor shares detailed insights about their teaching approach.

Anthropology

21A.445 Slavery and Human Trafficking in the 21st Century (Spring 2015), Mitali Thakor
Mitali Thakor describes how she uses non-traditional examples to broaden students’ understanding of human trafficking, how she thinks about students’ emotional responses to triggering topics, how she navigates teaching as a new instructor, and her thoughts on using writing assignments to encourage students to complete reading assignments.

Comparative Media Studies/Writing

21W.758 Genre Fiction Workshop (Spring 2013), Shariann Lewitt
Shariann Lewitt shares unique aspects of teaching fiction writing at MIT and discusses how she teaches students to challenge texts.

21W.747 Rhetoric (Spring 2015), Steven Strang
Steven Strang describes how he facilitates writing workshops and how he changes the course from year to year.

CMS.590J Computer Games and Simulations for Education and Exploration (Spring 2015), Eric Klopfer
Eric Klopfer describes the form and function of teamwork in this course. He also shares tips for facilitating project-based learning.

CMS.611J Creating Video Games (Fall 2014), Philip Tan, Sara Verrilli, Richard Eberhardt, and Andrew Haydn Grant
The instructors share their pedagogical approaches in 8 videos. Topics include: teaching students how to solve creative problems as teams; sequencing learning experiences; encouraging iteration, fostering diversity of voice in the course; assessing students’ projects; refining the course; advice for other educators; and their reflections on the collaboration between MIT and the Red Cross/Red Crescent Society during the course.  

CMS.608/CMS.864 Game Design (Spring 2014), Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt
Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt discuss how they prepare for the semester and class sessions, how they help students build game-playing experience, their assessment design, and factors, such as student background and feedback from students, that impact how they teach the course.

Global Studies and Languages

21G.101 Chinese I (Regular) (Fall 2014), Haohsiang Liao
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Haohsiang Liao shares how the curriculum in this course helps students develop cultural competence. He also describes the daily grading system in the course, the importance of listening to audio files, reasons to prioritize speaking and listening before reading and writing, how he supports struggling students, how he creates an immersive classroom environment, and how he motivates students to engage in language study. 

21G.107 Chinese I (Streamlined) (Fall 2014), Min-Min Liang
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Min-Min Liang shares her philosophical approach to language teaching, her insights about teaching heritage learners, her use of technology in this streamlined language course, her approach to assessment, and her hopes for incorporating more authentic texts into the curriculum in future iterations of the course.

21G.735 Advanced Topics in Hispanic Literature and Film: The Films of Luis Bunuel (1999-2013), Elizabeth Garrels
This course was taught at MIT seven times between 1999 and 2013. Elizabeth Garrels shares a history of the course, her film selections, and how she facilitated discussions in Spanish with students at different language proficiency levels.

RES.21G-001 The User-Friendly Classroom, A.C. Kemp
A.C. Kemp discusses the importance of focusing on International Teaching Assistants (ITAs), shares how user experience can be applied to ITA training, and ways to use the materials in this video training series.

History

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective (Spring 2012), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares insights about using a survey at the beginning of a course to understand students’ needs and backgrounds, to help students see that different students have different needs, and to encourage students to get into the habit of writing. She also discusses how she frames the humanities as problem solving endeavors and how she infuses the course with current events. Other topics include: teaching communication, the intersection of research and teaching, and adapting the course from year to year.

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today (Spring 2016), Anne McCants, Jeffrey Ravel and Ken Stone
The instructors of this course, in which students built a printing press, discuss using archival experiences to ground readings and allay educators’ skepticism about facilitating a hands-on course in the humanities.

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History (Fall 2014), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares how she engages students in archive-based research, how she infuses the course with multiple voices, and how she helps students develop professional competencies.

Literature

21L.011 The Film Experience (Fall 2013), David Thorburn
David Thorburn shares his pedagogical approach to teaching film in seven videos. Topics include his approach to lecturing, how he views the course as literary in nature, how the course has changed over the 30 years that he has taught it, the role of video lectures, and the themes structuring course.

21L.315 Prizewinners: Nobelistas (Spring 2015), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley shares how she selects Nobelistas to spotlight in the course, how she facilitates discussions, and her approach to teaching novices.

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur (Fall 2013), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes how he sets the stage for the study of Arthurian literature with a key question, how he encourages participation during classroom discussions, and his ideas for alternative assessment strategies in the course.

21L.501 The American Novel: Stranger and Stranger (Spring 2013), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley describes her motivation for developing the course and how she organizes it. She also describes her text selection, the digital tools she uses in the course, workshops, and unique aspects of teaching literature at MIT.

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English (Spring 2014), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes the curricular scope and sequence of the course, his textbook choice, how he assesses student learning, and how he develops rapport with students.

Linguistics and Philosophy

24.191 Ethics in Your Life: Being, Thinking, Doing (or Not?) (Spring 2015), Sally Haslanger, Patricia-Maria Weinmann, Brendan de Kennessy
Patricia-Maria Weinmann and Brendan de Kenessey share the history and design of this course, how they cultivated a classroom culture conducive to honest discussions, and how they experimented with a new discussion format.

Music and Theater Arts

21M.065 Introduction to Musical Composition (Spring 2014), Keeril Makan 
Keeril Makan describes his pedagogical goals in the course, which include helping students develop different ways of listening to music and to their environments and providing students with a hands-on introduction to music. He also shares pedagogical strategies, such as emphasizing student performance, using paper and pencil before employing software to complete projects, and engaging students in composer forums and concerts.

21M.380 Music and Technology: Sound Design (Spring 2016), Florian Hollerweger 
Florian Hollerweger discusses course design, teaching with technology (and without), learning actively in groups, using surveys to get to know students, assessing student learning in creative contexts, and engaging students deeply in the design process.

Political Science

17.445/17.446 International Relations Theory in the Cyber Age (Fall 2015), Nazli Choucri
Nazli Choucri comments on the importance of active participation during seminars and shares how she uses questions to promote engagement.

Science, Technology, and Society

STS.080/11.151 Youth Political Participation (Spring 2016), Jennifer Light
tudents take an active role in this course. They help the instructor, Jennifer Light, write the exam questions, lead presentations, and examine primary sources at the MIT Museum. In addition to instructor insights, visitors to the OCW course will find student perspectives about the pedagogical strategies shaping the learning experiences in this class.

Women and Gender Studies

WGS.151 Gender, Health, and Society (Spring 2016), Brittany Charlton
Brittany Charlton shares teaching techniques she uses to engage students, her insights on teaching content rooted in real-world contexts, and her thoughts on teaching students with a broad range of background experiences. She also discusses students’ final projects.

New Computer Science Courses!

A blue and yellow fractal image.

A fractal generated from the hailstone sequence, as discussed in Lecture 1 of 6.005 Software Construction. (Public domain image from Wikipedia.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

One of the great strengths of OCW as an educational resource is its extensive list of course sites from MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. You might think, with so many courses published from the EECS curriculum, that OCW’s work for this department has reached a plateau.

But OCW continues to climb higher, augmenting and refreshing the course list, and two new publications present superb cases in point.

Learning to Think Like a Programmer

6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python represents MIT’s evolving approach to this core subject, in which students with little or no programming experience learn how to write small programs that accomplish useful goals. 6.0001 is a six-week module using the Python 3.5 programming language.

Screenshot from video, of woman speaking in front of a chalkboard, holding a laser pointer.

Dr. Ana Bell explains a Python programming example (“robot cheerleaders”) in 6.001 Lecture 3.

The course site, showing the Fall 2016 class, has full video lectures featuring Dr. Ana Bell and Professor Eric Grimson. Slides and code for each lecture are also provided, as are interactive in-class questions with videos showing the answers to those questions. The textbook for the course was written by Professor John Guttag, who is well known to OCW fans for his popular OCW Scholar course, 6.00SC Introduction to Computer Science and Programming. The 6.0001 assignments page has helpful links to the 6.0001 Style Guide and a handy list of programming resources, including the Python Tutor.

Learning to Construct Software

Students who have developed some programming skill might then move on to 6.005 Software Construction, as taught in Spring 2016 by Professor Rob Miller and Dr. Max Goldman. As the instructors say in the syllabus, the course “introduces fundamental principles and techniques of software development, i.e., how to write software that is safe from bugs, easy to understand, and ready for change.”

Image containing some notes and a bubble+lines graph.

“Graphs—what are they good for? Poetry!” A page section from the problem, “Poetic Walks,” in the 6.005 Assignments.

An advocate of active learning, Professor Miller has his MIT students read a carefully structured textbook before coming to class so that most time can be spent doing exercises. The OCW site includes the full set of class readings, along with problems sets and a project, the ABC Music Player.

6.005 uses the Java programming language, for which help is available via the 6.005 Getting Started page and OCW’s popular course on Java, 6.092 Introduction to Programming in Java.

Making Sense of Immigration

Photo of protesters gathered in a public square, featuring a sign reading "No Ban, No Wall."

Thousands gathered in Boston on January 29, 2017, to protest President Trump’s executive order banning immigration and travel from 7 predominantly Muslim countries. (Photo courtesy of John Hilliard on Flickr, License CC BY.)

The shockwaves emanating from Washington DC in recent weeks may seem unprecedented, at least in recent US politics. But look back in time, and consider the history of other countries and regions; you’ll find plenty of lessons to ground your understanding of, and responses to, these current events. Look to OCW for some facts and thoughtful perspectives.

Consider immigration: the January 27th US executive order banning travel and immigration from seven predominantly Muslim countries, and plans to build a wall on the border with Mexico.

This handpicked selection of OCW courses on immigration reflects the teaching of many departments within MIT’s School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (Anthropology, Economics, History, Global Studies and Languages, Comparative Media Studies, Music, Political Science) and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning. Each of these OCW sites has an extensive reading list, with many items available online, plus a wide assortment of other materials.

Global Perspectives

21g-076f09-th21G.076 Globalization: the Good, the Bad, and the In-Between examines the paradoxes of contemporary globalization, and the cultural, linguistic, social and political impact of globalization across broad international borders and on specific language communities.

17-523f05-th17.523 Ethnicity and Race in World Politics seeks to answer fundamental questions about racial and ethnic politics. The course site includes complete lecture notes.

 

21a-442jf14-th21A.442 Violence, Human Rights, and Justice examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world (and a driver of immigration), and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse.

 

17-582s10-th17.582 Civil War surveys the origins, the variables that affect duration, and ways to settle this primary cause of refugees and mass migrations.

 

Middle Eastern History and Islam

21h-161f15-th21H.161 The Middle East in the 20th Century surveys the history of the Middle East from the end of the 19th century to the present. The OCW site features an extensive list of online readings and videos.

 

21m-289s15-th21M.289 Islam/Media is an introduction to Islam through the lens of media and sound studies. Several samples of student coursework complement a wide-ranging reading and film list.

 

21h-601f06-th21H.601 Islam, the Middle East, and the West offers a general overview of basic themes and issues in Middle Eastern history from the rise of Islam to the present.

 

In the United States

11-947s05-th11.947 Race, Immigration, and Planning is an introduction to the issues of immigrants, planning, and race, identifying the complexities and identities of immigrant populations emerging in the United States.

 

21h-221f06-th21H.221 The Places of Migration in United States History examines the history of the United States as a “nation of immigrants” within a broader global context, from the mid-19th century to the present. The course site includes selected lecture notes.

11-164f15-th11.164 Human Rights: At Home and Abroad includes a consideration of the historically contentious relationship between the West and the Rest in matters of sovereignty and human rights.

 

11-002jf14-th11.002J Making Public Policy treats politics as a struggle among competing advocates trying to persuade others to see the world as they do, structured primarily by institutions and cultural ideas. See the immigration readings for sessions #13-15.

 

21h-319f14-th21H.319 Race, Crime, and Citizenship in American Law examines how citizenship, nationhood, and race/ethnicity relate to US criminal justice, including national security policing and constitutional law at the intersection of ethnicity, religion, and counter-terrorism.

Bring it Home with a Game

cms-615f13-thFinally, a break from all the reading. Experience the challenging life of a refugee with Against All Odds, an online game developed by the United Nations High Commission on Refugees. It’s one of the “Serious Games” listed on CMS.615 Games for Social Change.

Recent History Shows Its Relevance

A grey-haired gentleman wearing a fur hat and black overcoat, raises his hand in a wave.

On December 31, 1999, Russian President Boris Yeltsin resigned as head of state, leaving the presidency to then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. (Image by ITAR-TASS, from the website of the President of the Russian Federation.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Back in November, we told you about a novel history course in which MIT students built a printing press out of a single beam of wood following a 16th-century design. The idea was to get students involved in a hands-on project so they could have an insider’s view of a technology that revolutionized the world, while keeping in mind the ways digital technology is reshaping the world today.

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today is but the latest of a string of OCW publications from MIT’s Department of History that have deep, one might even say, haunting relevance for the problems we confront today. A glance at any day’s news will make clear the value of setting current events in historical context.

Here is a sampler of recent OCW course sites from History, with brief descriptions from their syllabi. These courses all have detailed reading lists, and most have links to further help, including web resources, original documents, and films:

21H.108J Sexual and Gender Identities, as taught in Spring 2016 by Professor Caley Horan
wgs-110js16-thThis introduction to the history of gender, sex, and sexuality in the United States traces “the expanding and contracting nature of attempts to control, construct, and contain sexual and gender identities, as well as the efforts of those who worked to resist, reject, and reform institutionalized heterosexuality and mainstream configurations of gendered power.”

21H.211 The United States in the Nuclear Age, as taught in Spring 2016 by Professor Caley Horan
21h-211s16-th“The dawn of the nuclear age and the ensuing Cold War fundamentally altered American politics and social life. It also led to a flowering of technological experimentation and rapid innovation in the sciences. Over the course of the term, students will explore how Americans responded to these changes, and how those responses continue to shape life in the US today.”

21H.245J Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, 1917 to the Present, as taught in Spring 2016 by Professor Elizabeth A. Wood
21h-245js16-th“As Russian President Vladimir Putin once said, ‘Whoever does not miss the Soviet Union has no heart. Whoever wants it back has no brain.’ But what was the Soviet Union? How did it develop out of Imperial Russia? What happened in the Russian Revolution? What were the various efforts at reform, sometimes moderate (the New Economic Policy), sometimes violent (the purges of the 1930s)? How did the country deal with WWI and WWII? How did it deal with nationalities? What led to the rapid transformation under Gorbachev and the breakup of the USSR in 1991? How has the country continued to evolve under Yeltsin and Putin?”

21H.381J Women and War in the 20th Century, as taught in Fall 2015 by Professor Lerna Ekmekcioglu
21h-381jf15-th“This seminar examines women’s experiences during and after war, revolution, and genocide. The focus of the course is mostly on the 20th century and on North America, Europe and the Middle East.” Topics include War as Daily Life, Perpetrators, Soldiers, Rape as a Weapon, Peace Activism, and 9/11’s Gendered Aftermath.

21H.382 Capitalism in the Age of Revolution, as taught in Fall 2016 by Professor Malick Ghachem
21h-382s16-th“The novel instruments of credit, debt, and investment fashioned during this period proved to be enduring sources of financial innovation, but they also generated a great deal of political conflict, particularly during the revolutionary era itself. We will examine the debates surrounding large-scale financial and trading corporations and consider the eighteenth century as a period of recurring financial crisis in which corporate power came into sustained and direct contact with emerging republican norms.”

Mind and Hand and Ears

Collage of a Pure Data patch, consisting of several labeled boxes connected by lines, overlaying a black-and-white photo of a steam locomotive with steam blowing up out of the whistle.

One of the sound design exercises in 21M.380 challenges students to synthesize a steam train drive-by, with each group working on a different sound related to that problem. (Steam train photo is in the public domain, from Flickr Commons.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

People love sound effects. They have for generations. Just think of the original King Kong’s roar, created for the 1933 film by weaving together lion and tiger roars and playing them backwards. What would the movie be without that signature sound?

Certain sound effects are so iconic they have legs, so to speak. Like that bird whose call tells you the setting is deep in the jungle, no matter the continent. Or the scream of the guy who meets his doom by being attacked or falling from a cliff. That same scream has been used again and again in over 50 years of movies.

And what about those sounds that must be fully imagined? Like those space ships careering across the galaxy? The sound of the engines is so compelling the audience is happy to forget that, in the vacuum of space, sound does not exist. How did that sound get made?

Actually, it was designed. Design is a key part of the MIT “mind and hand” education. The art and science of sound design is the subject of 21M.380 Music and Technology: Sound Design, the latest in a series of courses on sound and technology that OCW has up on its site.

This most recent publication reflects the teaching of Dr. Florian Hollerweger, a sound artist and sound technology researcher in MIT’s Department of Music and Theater Arts.

Teaching with Technology (and Without)

The course site has lecture notes, readings, assignments, and samples of student projects through multiple iterations, so you can see how the projects evolved. MIT students and OCW learners alike benefit from the course’s use of a free open-source program called Pure Data. Dr. Hollerweger’s extensive notes include linked audio samples and working examples of Pure Data code, creating a dynamic learning experience.

Dr. Hollerweger explains the central practice of the course in the Instructor Insights on his This Course at MIT page:

 . . . we take real-world sounds and try to understand how they work. We then recreate them from scratch without using any recordings. Instead we rely on oscillators, noise generators, and filters, which we control through computer programs that students learn to write as part of the course . . . The prospect of engaging with students in the process of aestheticizing everyday sound experiences was a major impetus for teaching the course.

Learning to Listen

Before creating sounds, students must first learn how to listen. Or, as Dr. Hollerweger puts it, “Your main tool for sound design is really your ears.”  The soundwalk assignment is where it all begins. The students

 . . . describe, in as minute detail as possible, their aural experience from a listening excursion that we conduct across the MIT campus together. This assignment teaches them to verbalize their sonic impressions and communicate them to others. It trains students’ ears to attend not only to individual sound sources, but also to flutter echoes, comb filters, and other subtle acoustics effects that are due to the abutting architecture.

In other Instructor Insights, Dr. Hollerweger explains how he uses surveys to get to know his students and to tap their various talents, how he gets them learning actively in groups (he employs only the shortest of lectures), how he teaches the iterative design process, and how he assesses and grades creative projects.

Offering Advice

A lot of the instruction takes place the old-fashioned way—meeting one on one during office hours:

A lot of the support I offer students during the design process occurs during office hours. This is because their projects are so individualized. Every student has to come up with their own idea. When a student gets stuck, we need to get together to identify the key challenges of their design through an open-ended discussion.

[Applause!]

21M.380 is but the latest course in which instruction in the iterative design process is represented on OCW. Some other recent examples are CMS.611J Creating Video Games, 6.811 Principles and Practice of Assistive Technology, and 20.219 Becoming the Next Bill Nye: Writing and Hosting the Educational Show.

Girls Who Build Cameras Have More Fun

Photo of several girls around a table working on some electronics.

Girls in the workshop working together to build their Raspberry Pi cameras. (Courtesy of Jon Barron, MIT Lincoln Laboratory.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Kristen Railey is on a mission. She wants to help more girls become engineers and appreciate the wonders of engineering. But rather than simply joining the chorus lamenting that women are underrepresented in STEM fields, Railey is actually doing something about it. She’s created Girls Who Build.

Girls Who Build is a workshop in which high-school girls learn about engineering through things they use every day and then apply that knowledge to create new things on their own—all in a single day. It’s an exciting and fun experience for female students who may have very little exposure to engineering and who may not know any real engineers.

The workshop offers the opportunity for girls to get introduced to a variety of fields quickly: materials science, mechanical engineering, computer programming, electrical engineering. Railey believes that a little familiarity with engineering concepts can foster both confidence and curiosity. The girls themselves see that working collaboratively on projects can lead to tangible accomplishments. And they get to know some successful and enthusiastic female engineers.

Open Sharing, Take 2

An MIT graduate who works on oceanic robots at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Railey is also a believer in open sharing. Last year she published Girls Who Build: Make Your Own Wearables Workshop, an OCW site that shows how girls make jewelry with a 3-D printer, laser-cut materials to assemble a purse, and program LEDs so they light up on shoes they wear.

Now OCW has published a second Railey workshop, Girls Who Build Cameras. The OCW site has a rich array of resources, notably video lectures on digital cameras, the applications of camera technology, and image processing by coding Instagram-like filters. The site also has lecture slides, an image gallery of workshop activities, instructions for those activities, and supporting files. There are also video presentations by women from the MIT Women’s Technology Program and the Society of Women Engineers.

Inspiring Role Models

The guest lecturers are young, mostly female engineers doing exciting work in their careers, such as medical imaging, satellite and space imaging, and sophisticated image processing.  They show that the same technology that we all have at our fingertips in our cell phone cameras has amazingly broad applications, from revealing the ins and outs of hazardous places to sharpening the murky photos of a shipwreck.

Railey also includes on the OCW site some handy resources for instructors who want to host their own workshops, such as a video of the opening minutes of Cameras and a promotional video explaining the Girls Who Build concept.

Railey has definitely found a successful way to introduce engineering and coding to high school girls, some of whom may never have considered these fields before. By using topics of interest like wearables and Instagram, Girls Who Build demonstrates how much fun learning and teaching coding, engineering, and science can be.