The Once and Future City

“A cloudy evening on the bridge between Boston and Cambridge. In 2015, this course focused on the 100th anniversary of MIT’s move across the Charles River, from Boston to Cambridge. (Courtesy of nd-nʎ on Flickr. CC BY-NC-SA.)”

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

Walk around a neighborhood in your city or town, and you might notice the different styles of buildings, the width of the streets, the kinds of trees or other plants, the open spaces, the way the wind whistles. Taking it all in, you might feel caught up in the moment. Ah!

But maybe you’re just trapped in the present.

Stretching your time frame is a major focus of 11.016J The Once and Future City, just published on OCW as taught by Professor Anne Whiston Spirn in Spring 2015.

 

Identifying the Pieces

“Cities are the products of the actions of millions of people and countless decisions, public and private,” Professor Spirn notes in one of her three videos that kick off the assignments. “How do all the pieces, styles, and times fit together?”

Early in the class students investigate maps of Boston, discovering how the city has changed over the centuries. “Who has the power to erase roads, to consolidate hundreds of properties?” a second video asks. “Why do some things persist and others disappear?”

A big part of the course is learning how to look, how to find “significant detail.” This process can be awkward for students accustomed to finding a right answer to a given question. The students are “not just taking a text and applying it, or critiquing something that already exists. They are developing visual thinking skills, and they have to make observations using their own eyes and mind. Many are not prepared for this.”

 

Stepping outside the Classroom Box

Professor Spirn helps them see for themselves by taking them on short field trips, where she asks provocative questions to get students thinking. As she explains in “Leading Productive Field Trips,” one of her Instructor Insights,

“The field trips are designed to give the students an introduction to methods of observation before they have to go out and perform field observations on their own at the sites they choose for their projects. We walk around and I show them how to look at things, how to find significant detail. But what is significant? Some students don’t see anything at all . . . Others see so many things that they can’t make sense out of what is significant and what is trivial. The field trip helps both kinds of students.”

 

Seeing Patterns Emerge

This form of teaching is very different from how Professor Spirn originally taught the course, back when she imparted knowledge through class lectures. Several years ago she decided to flip her classroom. Now instead of lecturing, she says

“I put together a series of images—mostly maps and photographs . . . Depending on the current assignment, the images emphasize different phenomena. But they always consist of puzzles . . . I’ll project an image on the screen and say, ‘What pattern do you see here?’ Sometimes nobody sees a pattern, so I say, ‘OK, do you see any anomalies? Does anything stick out or seem odd?’”

From the puzzles emerge patterns, and from the patterns, a hypothesis.

 

Opening the Mind’s Eye through Projects

The course site has extensive descriptions of the assignments, in which students select a site to explore, observe the natural processes at play in it, analyze its changes through time, and see what all of this bodes for the future.

Included on the site are examples of student projects from four different iterations of the course, among them papers on Coolidge Corner, The Bullfinch Triangle, and Boston’s West End.

11.016J turns the present into a portal for time travel. If it sounds fantastic, that’s because it is.

Courses from MIT’s 2017 MacVicar Fellows

Photos of three MIT professors

MIT professors Maria Yang (left), Caspar Hare (center), and Scott Hughes have been named 2017 MacVicar Fellows. (Photos by Bryce Vickmark (Yang), Patrick Gilooly (Hare), and Justin Knight.)

By Sarah Hansen, OCW Educator Project Manager

For the past 25 years, the MacVicar Faculty Fellows Program has honored several MIT professors each year who have made outstanding contributions to undergraduate teaching, educational innovation, and mentoring.

This year’s awardees are Professors Caspar Hare (philosophy), Scott A. Hughes (physics), and Maria Yang (mechanical engineering).

OCW is honored to share courses from two of this year’s Fellows.

Caspar Hare

24.06J/STS.006J Bioethics

Scott A. Hughes

8.962 General Relativity

Through the OCW Educator initiative, we have also collected teaching insights from several current and past MacVicar Fellows.

Arthur Bahr

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English and Beowulf

Wit Busza

Vibrations and Waves Problem Solving

Dennis M. Freeman

6.01SC Introduction to Electrical Engineering and Computer Science I

Lorna Gibson

3.054 Cellular Solids: Structure, Properties and Applications

Steven R. Hall

16.06 Principles of Automatic Control

Anne E. C. McCants

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History

Haynes R. Miller

18.821 Project Laboratory in Mathematics

18.915 Graduate Topology Seminar: Kan Seminar

Hazel Sive

7.013 Introductory Biology (Spring 2013 version)

Insights on teaching Humanities, Arts, and Social Science at MIT

PHoto of several people around a wooden workbench.

History professor Jeff Ravel and students build a working printing press based on early modern European designs, in 21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today. (Photo by Jonathan Sachs / Jonathan Sachs Graphics, Inc.)

One of our favorite things at MIT OpenCourseWare is to shine a spotlight on fascinating subjects and great teachers that might otherwise escape notice. We’ve written before on the strength of MIT’s School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (SHASS), both in their own right and in community with MIT’s more widely recognized STEM and business programs. OCW is pleased to freely share material from nearly 800 courses from across all SHASS disciplines.

Where to begin among all this free learning material? If you’re an educator (or just curious about teaching and learning process), you’re in luck!  OCW Educator project manager Sarah Hansen recently worked with SHASS colleagues to compile a list of OCW highlights, which we republish here. Each of these links goes to the course’s “This Course at MIT” section, where the instructor shares detailed insights about their teaching approach.

Anthropology

21A.445 Slavery and Human Trafficking in the 21st Century (Spring 2015), Mitali Thakor
Mitali Thakor describes how she uses non-traditional examples to broaden students’ understanding of human trafficking, how she thinks about students’ emotional responses to triggering topics, how she navigates teaching as a new instructor, and her thoughts on using writing assignments to encourage students to complete reading assignments.

Comparative Media Studies/Writing

21W.758 Genre Fiction Workshop (Spring 2013), Shariann Lewitt
Shariann Lewitt shares unique aspects of teaching fiction writing at MIT and discusses how she teaches students to challenge texts.

21W.747 Rhetoric (Spring 2015), Steven Strang
Steven Strang describes how he facilitates writing workshops and how he changes the course from year to year.

CMS.590J Computer Games and Simulations for Education and Exploration (Spring 2015), Eric Klopfer
Eric Klopfer describes the form and function of teamwork in this course. He also shares tips for facilitating project-based learning.

CMS.611J Creating Video Games (Fall 2014), Philip Tan, Sara Verrilli, Richard Eberhardt, and Andrew Haydn Grant
The instructors share their pedagogical approaches in 8 videos. Topics include: teaching students how to solve creative problems as teams; sequencing learning experiences; encouraging iteration, fostering diversity of voice in the course; assessing students’ projects; refining the course; advice for other educators; and their reflections on the collaboration between MIT and the Red Cross/Red Crescent Society during the course.  

CMS.608/CMS.864 Game Design (Spring 2014), Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt
Philip Tan and Richard Eberhardt discuss how they prepare for the semester and class sessions, how they help students build game-playing experience, their assessment design, and factors, such as student background and feedback from students, that impact how they teach the course.

Global Studies and Languages

21G.101 Chinese I (Regular) (Fall 2014), Haohsiang Liao
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Haohsiang Liao shares how the curriculum in this course helps students develop cultural competence. He also describes the daily grading system in the course, the importance of listening to audio files, reasons to prioritize speaking and listening before reading and writing, how he supports struggling students, how he creates an immersive classroom environment, and how he motivates students to engage in language study. 

21G.107 Chinese I (Streamlined) (Fall 2014), Min-Min Liang
In video interviews, recorded in both English and Chinese, Min-Min Liang shares her philosophical approach to language teaching, her insights about teaching heritage learners, her use of technology in this streamlined language course, her approach to assessment, and her hopes for incorporating more authentic texts into the curriculum in future iterations of the course.

21G.735 Advanced Topics in Hispanic Literature and Film: The Films of Luis Bunuel (1999-2013), Elizabeth Garrels
This course was taught at MIT seven times between 1999 and 2013. Elizabeth Garrels shares a history of the course, her film selections, and how she facilitated discussions in Spanish with students at different language proficiency levels.

RES.21G-001 The User-Friendly Classroom, A.C. Kemp
A.C. Kemp discusses the importance of focusing on International Teaching Assistants (ITAs), shares how user experience can be applied to ITA training, and ways to use the materials in this video training series.

History

21H.134J Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective (Spring 2012), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares insights about using a survey at the beginning of a course to understand students’ needs and backgrounds, to help students see that different students have different needs, and to encourage students to get into the habit of writing. She also discusses how she frames the humanities as problem solving endeavors and how she infuses the course with current events. Other topics include: teaching communication, the intersection of research and teaching, and adapting the course from year to year.

21H.343J Making Books: The Renaissance and Today (Spring 2016), Anne McCants, Jeffrey Ravel and Ken Stone
The instructors of this course, in which students built a printing press, discuss using archival experiences to ground readings and allay educators’ skepticism about facilitating a hands-on course in the humanities.

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History (Fall 2014), Anne McCants
Anne McCants shares how she engages students in archive-based research, how she infuses the course with multiple voices, and how she helps students develop professional competencies.

Literature

21L.011 The Film Experience (Fall 2013), David Thorburn
David Thorburn shares his pedagogical approach to teaching film in seven videos. Topics include his approach to lecturing, how he views the course as literary in nature, how the course has changed over the 30 years that he has taught it, the role of video lectures, and the themes structuring course.

21L.315 Prizewinners: Nobelistas (Spring 2015), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley shares how she selects Nobelistas to spotlight in the course, how she facilitates discussions, and her approach to teaching novices.

21L.460 Medieval Literature: Legends of Arthur (Fall 2013), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes how he sets the stage for the study of Arthurian literature with a key question, how he encourages participation during classroom discussions, and his ideas for alternative assessment strategies in the course.

21L.501 The American Novel: Stranger and Stranger (Spring 2013), Wyn Kelley
Wyn Kelley describes her motivation for developing the course and how she organizes it. She also describes her text selection, the digital tools she uses in the course, workshops, and unique aspects of teaching literature at MIT.

21L.705 Major Authors: Old English (Spring 2014), Arthur Bahr
Arthur Bahr describes the curricular scope and sequence of the course, his textbook choice, how he assesses student learning, and how he develops rapport with students.

Linguistics and Philosophy

24.191 Ethics in Your Life: Being, Thinking, Doing (or Not?) (Spring 2015), Sally Haslanger, Patricia-Maria Weinmann, Brendan de Kennessy
Patricia-Maria Weinmann and Brendan de Kenessey share the history and design of this course, how they cultivated a classroom culture conducive to honest discussions, and how they experimented with a new discussion format.

Music and Theater Arts

21M.065 Introduction to Musical Composition (Spring 2014), Keeril Makan 
Keeril Makan describes his pedagogical goals in the course, which include helping students develop different ways of listening to music and to their environments and providing students with a hands-on introduction to music. He also shares pedagogical strategies, such as emphasizing student performance, using paper and pencil before employing software to complete projects, and engaging students in composer forums and concerts.

21M.380 Music and Technology: Sound Design (Spring 2016), Florian Hollerweger 
Florian Hollerweger discusses course design, teaching with technology (and without), learning actively in groups, using surveys to get to know students, assessing student learning in creative contexts, and engaging students deeply in the design process.

Political Science

17.445/17.446 International Relations Theory in the Cyber Age (Fall 2015), Nazli Choucri
Nazli Choucri comments on the importance of active participation during seminars and shares how she uses questions to promote engagement.

Science, Technology, and Society

STS.080/11.151 Youth Political Participation (Spring 2016), Jennifer Light
tudents take an active role in this course. They help the instructor, Jennifer Light, write the exam questions, lead presentations, and examine primary sources at the MIT Museum. In addition to instructor insights, visitors to the OCW course will find student perspectives about the pedagogical strategies shaping the learning experiences in this class.

Women and Gender Studies

WGS.151 Gender, Health, and Society (Spring 2016), Brittany Charlton
Brittany Charlton shares teaching techniques she uses to engage students, her insights on teaching content rooted in real-world contexts, and her thoughts on teaching students with a broad range of background experiences. She also discusses students’ final projects.

Actively Teaching Active Learning

Image of students

Students in 5.95 engage in “lightning round” discussions.

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

When you think about education, it’s easy to feel jaded. After all, waves of education reform have swept over American schools and colleges for decades, and tangible improvements—let alone a sea change—don’t exactly spring to mind.

But new hope has arisen in recent years, and with good reason, because for the first time teaching practices are being aligned with how the mind actually works. Studies are showing that there are certain things that teachers can do to make substantial improvements in student learning.

Action and Interaction

One of the key discoveries is that students learn best when they are actively engaged in their own learning, rather than sitting back passively and just listening (or not) to an instructor. And they learn even better when this active engagement is accompanied by interactive exchanges with other students.

How to put this wisdom into practice is at the center of 5.95 Teaching College-Level Science and Engineering, just published on OCW. As taught in Fall 2015, the course surveys all aspects of teaching a STEM course, including what is known about student learning and cognition, how to design a course and develop learning outcomes, how to design effective assignments and assessments, and even how to grade.

The instructor is Dr. Janet Rankin, the acting Director of MIT’s Teaching and Learning Lab, which has been helping to boost effective educational practices on campus for many years.

Well-Informed Practice  

The centerpiece of the 5.95 course site is a collection of videos that show why Dr. Rankin is such an avid advocate of active learning and how she puts active learning to effective use in her own classes. In other words, she doesn’t just preach. She practices.

Three class videos show how Dr. Rankin combines short lectures with a variety of active learning techniques to bolster student learning and knowledge retention.

In a number of video Instructor Insights, Dr. Rankin explains the virtues of active learning in its various manifestations, and footage from her class shows how the different techniques played out. With experience teaching in a variety of settings, from discussion-based seminars to large lectures, Rankin knows how to adapt the techniques to different situations in order to get the best results and avoid missteps.

 

Many Methods to Success

The techniques often have intriguing names: mud cards, think-pair-share, debate, beach ball, personal response systems, lightning round, jigsaw. And they often produce scenes that would surprise STEM educators accustomed to giving non-interactive lectures. How can serious learning take place with students tossing a beach ball around the classroom?  If each student who catches the ball has to say what they think about a given question, discussion is rapid-fire, participation is high, and the often inhibiting dynamic in which the all-knowing instructor puts students on the spot with pointed questions never comes into play.

In the lightning round, students line up face to face so that each person briefly shares with their counterpart their views on a given question. Then students shift places in the line, and begin again. In this way, students can quickly get a sense of how others in the class think about a topic. They get comfortable talking to one another.  They have fun! And their understanding is broadened and made more sophisticated. Knowledge gets reinforced.

Coming up with productive questions can make a big difference in these activities, and Dr. Rankin offers advice on this as well.

**********************

OCW has another version of 5.95, taught in Spring 2009 by Sanjoy Mahajan, also an advocate of active learning. Now a Professor at Olin College, Mahajan was at the time Associate Director of the Teaching and Learning Lab. The course site has full videos of the class sessions and is also worth a visit.

New Computer Science Courses!

A blue and yellow fractal image.

A fractal generated from the hailstone sequence, as discussed in Lecture 1 of 6.005 Software Construction. (Public domain image from Wikipedia.)

By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director

One of the great strengths of OCW as an educational resource is its extensive list of course sites from MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. You might think, with so many courses published from the EECS curriculum, that OCW’s work for this department has reached a plateau.

But OCW continues to climb higher, augmenting and refreshing the course list, and two new publications present superb cases in point.

Learning to Think Like a Programmer

6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python represents MIT’s evolving approach to this core subject, in which students with little or no programming experience learn how to write small programs that accomplish useful goals. 6.0001 is a six-week module using the Python 3.5 programming language.

Screenshot from video, of woman speaking in front of a chalkboard, holding a laser pointer.

Dr. Ana Bell explains a Python programming example (“robot cheerleaders”) in 6.001 Lecture 3.

The course site, showing the Fall 2016 class, has full video lectures featuring Dr. Ana Bell and Professor Eric Grimson. Slides and code for each lecture are also provided, as are interactive in-class questions with videos showing the answers to those questions. The textbook for the course was written by Professor John Guttag, who is well known to OCW fans for his popular OCW Scholar course, 6.00SC Introduction to Computer Science and Programming. The 6.0001 assignments page has helpful links to the 6.0001 Style Guide and a handy list of programming resources, including the Python Tutor.

Learning to Construct Software

Students who have developed some programming skill might then move on to 6.005 Software Construction, as taught in Spring 2016 by Professor Rob Miller and Dr. Max Goldman. As the instructors say in the syllabus, the course “introduces fundamental principles and techniques of software development, i.e., how to write software that is safe from bugs, easy to understand, and ready for change.”

Image containing some notes and a bubble+lines graph.

“Graphs—what are they good for? Poetry!” A page section from the problem, “Poetic Walks,” in the 6.005 Assignments.

An advocate of active learning, Professor Miller has his MIT students read a carefully structured textbook before coming to class so that most time can be spent doing exercises. The OCW site includes the full set of class readings, along with problems sets and a project, the ABC Music Player.

6.005 uses the Java programming language, for which help is available via the 6.005 Getting Started page and OCW’s popular course on Java, 6.092 Introduction to Programming in Java.

The Commons rejoices: 375,000 new images from the Met

Photo of ceramic statue of a person, smilling with arms upraised.

This Smiling Figure from the Remojadas region of Veracruz is a hollow ceramic sculpture representing an individual celebrating with music and dance. (License CC 0, from the Metropolitan Museum.)

It’s a great day for art and the Commons!

Today, the Metropolitan Museum of Art unveiled a new Open Access policy for 375,000 images from their permanent collection – spanning 5,000 years of history, from antiquities to photography, and including images otherwise unavailable to view within the museum itself. These images (and their metadata) are provided under the public domain Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.

Begin to explore the bounty by visiting their Collection page, and selecting the “Public Domain Artworks” filter in the left-hand column.

Learn more about the program, including their partnerships with Artstor, Wikimedia Foundation, Digital Public Library of America, ITHAKA, and Creative Commons, in this Facebook Live video of the announcement.

We look forward to these great artworks enlivening our course home pages, social media posts, and within our course materials. From all of us at MIT OpenCourseWare, and on behalf of our millions of learners around the globe, thank you Met and all those who made this gift possible.

Making Sense of Immigration

Photo of protesters gathered in a public square, featuring a sign reading "No Ban, No Wall."

Thousands gathered in Boston on January 29, 2017, to protest President Trump’s executive order banning immigration and travel from 7 predominantly Muslim countries. (Photo courtesy of John Hilliard on Flickr, License CC BY.)

The shockwaves emanating from Washington DC in recent weeks may seem unprecedented, at least in recent US politics. But look back in time, and consider the history of other countries and regions; you’ll find plenty of lessons to ground your understanding of, and responses to, these current events. Look to OCW for some facts and thoughtful perspectives.

Consider immigration: the January 27th US executive order banning travel and immigration from seven predominantly Muslim countries, and plans to build a wall on the border with Mexico.

This handpicked selection of OCW courses on immigration reflects the teaching of many departments within MIT’s School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (Anthropology, Economics, History, Global Studies and Languages, Comparative Media Studies, Music, Political Science) and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning. Each of these OCW sites has an extensive reading list, with many items available online, plus a wide assortment of other materials.

Global Perspectives

21g-076f09-th21G.076 Globalization: the Good, the Bad, and the In-Between examines the paradoxes of contemporary globalization, and the cultural, linguistic, social and political impact of globalization across broad international borders and on specific language communities.

17-523f05-th17.523 Ethnicity and Race in World Politics seeks to answer fundamental questions about racial and ethnic politics. The course site includes complete lecture notes.

 

21a-442jf14-th21A.442 Violence, Human Rights, and Justice examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world (and a driver of immigration), and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse.

 

17-582s10-th17.582 Civil War surveys the origins, the variables that affect duration, and ways to settle this primary cause of refugees and mass migrations.

 

Middle Eastern History and Islam

21h-161f15-th21H.161 The Middle East in the 20th Century surveys the history of the Middle East from the end of the 19th century to the present. The OCW site features an extensive list of online readings and videos.

 

21m-289s15-th21M.289 Islam/Media is an introduction to Islam through the lens of media and sound studies. Several samples of student coursework complement a wide-ranging reading and film list.

 

21h-601f06-th21H.601 Islam, the Middle East, and the West offers a general overview of basic themes and issues in Middle Eastern history from the rise of Islam to the present.

 

In the United States

11-947s05-th11.947 Race, Immigration, and Planning is an introduction to the issues of immigrants, planning, and race, identifying the complexities and identities of immigrant populations emerging in the United States.

 

21h-221f06-th21H.221 The Places of Migration in United States History examines the history of the United States as a “nation of immigrants” within a broader global context, from the mid-19th century to the present. The course site includes selected lecture notes.

11-164f15-th11.164 Human Rights: At Home and Abroad includes a consideration of the historically contentious relationship between the West and the Rest in matters of sovereignty and human rights.

 

11-002jf14-th11.002J Making Public Policy treats politics as a struggle among competing advocates trying to persuade others to see the world as they do, structured primarily by institutions and cultural ideas. See the immigration readings for sessions #13-15.

 

21h-319f14-th21H.319 Race, Crime, and Citizenship in American Law examines how citizenship, nationhood, and race/ethnicity relate to US criminal justice, including national security policing and constitutional law at the intersection of ethnicity, religion, and counter-terrorism.

Bring it Home with a Game

cms-615f13-thFinally, a break from all the reading. Experience the challenging life of a refugee with Against All Odds, an online game developed by the United Nations High Commission on Refugees. It’s one of the “Serious Games” listed on CMS.615 Games for Social Change.